What is Philosophy? And types of Philosophy

If we look at the meaning of philosophy, philosophy is the name of that knowledge which gives understanding of truth and knowledge. In broad sense, philosophy is the art of logical, methodical and systematic thinking.

The definition of philosophy is very difficult. However, for anyone who is writing about or training in philosophy, it is important to first explain what they mean by it, so that the reader has some idea of what kind of philosophy they are getting. To confront and, while training people to facilitate philosophy, provide criteria.

The Philosophy Foundation’s account attempts to capture its spirit, structure, content, methodology, goals, and hopes, but our account is entirely individual and culturally specific to us. So, in line with the philosophical spirit we have attempted to portray here, one might wonder whether philosophy – at least apart from what we have said – is something other than what we have said; After all, it would not be very philosophical to accept our account uncritically.


Philosophy is called Philosophy and the philosopher is called Philosopher.

Philosophy is made of two words:- Philos + Sophia = Philosopher, Philos = affection, love, Sophia = wisdom

Types of Philosophy:- Philosophy is mainly of two types

1) Indian philosophy

2) Western philosophy

Indian Philosophy

Shatdarshan:- This is a philosophy which is the main part of philosophy. The following darshans come under this (Shatdarshan):-

  • Sankhya philosophy – Kapil Muni
  • Yoga Darshan – Patanjali
  • Nyaya Darshan – Gautam
  • Vaisheshika Darshan – Kanada
  • Purva Mimamsa – Jaimini
  • Uttara Mimamsa (Advaita, Vedanta philosophy) – Badarayana
  • These 6 darshans are called Shatdarshan.
  • Charvaka philosophy (Lokayata or materialistic philosophy) – Jupiter
  • Jain philosophy – Mahavir
  • Buddhist Philosophy – Gautam Buddha
  • Kautilya – Saptanga theory, Mandala theory
  • Swami Vivekananda – Practical Vedanta, Universal Religion
  • Sri Aurobindo – Holistic Yoga, Supermind
  • Gandhiji – Non-violence, Satyagraha, Eleventh fast
  • B.R. Ambedkar – Social Thought
  • Vallabhacharya – Pushtimarg.

Western Philosophy:

Western Philosophy: The following are the major Western philosophies –

  • Plato – Virtue
  • Aristotle – Theory of Causation
  • Descartes – Method of Doubt
  • Spinoza – Matter, Pantheism
  • Leibniz – Cheidanism Locke – Epistemology
  • Berkeley – Power is based on experience Hume – Skepticism Kant – Criticalism
  • Hegel – Dialectical idealism, understanding and existence
  • Moore – Objectivism
  • A. J. Air-verification principle
  • John Dewey – Behaviorism
  • Sartre – Existentialism
  • Saint Anselm – The basic principles for attaining God.

Philosophy is divided into 4 parts: –

1) Under theistic philosophy:- Sankhya philosophy, Yoga philosophy, Nyaya philosophy, Vaisheshika philosophy, Purva Mimamsa philosophy, Uttara Mimamsa (Advaita Vedanta philosophy) all these are theistic philosophies.

2) Atheistic philosophy – Jain philosophy, Buddhist philosophy, Charvak philosophy, all these are atheistic philosophies, at the same time they do not accept the existence of God, they are atheists.

3) Theistic philosophy – Yoga philosophy, Nyaya philosophy, Vaisheshika philosophy, Uttara Mimamsa (Advaita Vedanta) all of them are believers in the concept of God and are also theists.

4) Atheistic philosophy – Sankhya Darshan, Jain philosophy, Buddhist philosophy, Charwak Darshan, Purva Mimamsa, all of them do not believe in the concept of God.